# Joints¶

Joints in Solfec-1.0 are defined by FIX_POINT, FIX_DIRECTION, SET_DISPLACEMENT, SET_VELOCITY, SET_ACCELERATION, PUT_RIGID_LINK, and PUT_SPRING commands. Joints are also called bilateral constraints. They restrain absolute motion of individual points of individual bodies, or relative motion of pairs of points between two bodies.

Joints are implemented via suitably setting values of components of relative constraint velocities or constraint reactions. That is to say, the general implicit relation

for a bilateral constraint with index \(\alpha\) takes a particular shape. In order to work with components
of relative velocities and forces it is convenient to introduce the following naming convention. Let every local
frame be defined by a matrix \(\left\{ \mathbf{a}_{T1},\mathbf{a}_{T2},\mathbf{a}_{N}\right\}\) made of juxtaposed
column vectors: \(\mathbf{a}_{T1}\) and \(\mathbf{a}_{T2}\), called *tangent*, and \(\mathbf{a}_{N}\), called *normal*.
We also assume, that these vectors are mutually perpendicular: \(\mathbf{a}_{T1}\perp\mathbf{a}_{T2}\perp\mathbf{a}_{N}\).
With this convenetion at hand, below we define particular versions of relation (73) for joint types available in Solfec-1.0.

## Fixed point¶

Joint corresponding to the FIX_POINT command is realized by defining

and hence

imposes the fixed point constraint.

## Fixed direction¶

Joint corresponding to the FIX_DIRECTION command is realized by defining

and hence

imposes the fixed direction constraint. In this case the normal direction is taken to be the fixed direction, while the tangential plane is unused (hence zero tangential reaction, \(\mathbf{R}_{T}=\left[\begin{array}{c} R_{T1}\\ R_{T2} \end{array}\right]\))

## Prescribed displacement¶

Joint corresponding to the SET_DISPLACEMENT command is realized by defining

and hence

where the displacement signal \(\text{disp}\left(t\right)\) is provided by the user as a linear spline and differentiated numerically to obtain velocity. The tangential plane is unused, hence zero tangential reaction.

## Prescribed velocity¶

Joint corresponding to the SET_VELOCITY command is realized by defining

and hence

where the velocity signal \(\text{velo}\left(t\right)\) is provided by the user as a linear spline. The tangential plane is unused, hence zero tangential reaction.

## Prescribed acceleration¶

Joint corresponding to the SET_ACCELERATION command is realized by defining

and hence

where the acceleration signal \(\text{acc}\left(t\right)\) is provided by the user as a linear spline and integrated numerically to obtain velocity. The tangential plane is unused, hence zero tangential reaction.

## Rigid link constraint¶

Joint corresponding to the PUT_RIGID_LINK command is realized by defining a normal direction

and tangential plane as orthogonal to this direction \(\mathbf{a}_{T1}\perp\mathbf{a}_{T2}\perp\mathbf{a}_{N}\), followed by imposing

and hence

which fixes the relative motion of points \(\mathbf{x}_{1}\) and \(\mathbf{x}_{2}\) along the normal direction. The tangential plane is unused, hence zero tangential reaction.

## Spring constraint¶

Joint corresponding to the PUT_SPRING command is realized by defining a stretch

a normal direction

and tangential plane as orthogonal to this direction \(\mathbf{a}_{T1}\perp\mathbf{a}_{T2}\perp\mathbf{a}_{N}\), followed by imposing

and hence

where the user force is prescribed as a Python subroutine. The tangential plane is unused, hence zero tangential reaction.

## Implementation¶

Joints are implemented as a part of constraint solvers. For example, function dbs.c:DIAGONAL_BLOCK_Solver is a driver routine for all joint types solved within the Gauss–Seidel solver, invoked from within bgs.c:GAUSS_SEIDEL_Solve. Within the Projected Newton solver the routine nts.c:solve implements all joint types.